## Kindergarten

The student…
• recognizes letters of the alphabet
• associates sounds with letters of the alphabet
• understands basic phonological/phonetic principles (ex., knows rhyming words, knows words that have the same initial and final sounds)
• blends individual sounds into words
• understands how print is organized and read (ex., locating print on a page, matching print to speech, knowing parts of a book, reading from top-to-bottom, left-to-right and sweeping back to left for the next line)
• uses a variety of sources to build vocabulary (ex., word walls, other people and life experiences)
• develops vocabulary by discussing characters and events from a story
• uses strategies to comprehend text (ex., retelling, discussing, asking questions, using illustrations and sequences of events)
• knows the main idea or essential message from a read-aloud story or informational piece
• selects materials to read for pleasure
• demonstrates phonemic awareness

### Writing Development

The student...
• writes a story that makes sense
• stays on topic
• demonstrates phonemic awareness
• uses sight words
• writes from left to right
• leaves space between words

### Mathematics

#### Number Sense

The student…
• counts, reads and writes numerals to 10 or more and counts backward from 10 to 1
• knows that cardinal numbers indicate quantity and ordinal numbers indicate position
• uses language such as before or after to describe relative position in a sequence of whole numbers
• compares 2 or more sets (up to 10) and identifies which set is equal to, more than or less than.
• uses concrete materials to represent whole number and fractional parts of a whole (ex., one-half, and one-fourth)
• counts orally by 1s, 2s, 5s, and 10s using concrete materials, pictures and hundred chart to show the concept of numbers
• demonstrates and describes the effect of putting together and taking apart sets of objects
• creates, acts out with objects, and solves number problems
• estimates the number in a set and verifies by counting
• builds models to show that numbers are odd or even

#### Measurements

The student…
• measures and communicates length, distance and weight of objects using nonstandard, concrete materials
• describes the concepts of time, temperature and capacity
• uses direct and indirect comparison to sort and order objects
• uses uniform, nonstandard units to estimate and verify by measuring length and width of common classroom objects
• knows and compares the value of a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter
• knows measurement tools and uses them for length, weight, capacity and time
• knows and sorts 2-dimensional shapes (ex., circles, squares, and triangles) and 3-dimensional objects (ex., cubes and cones)
• recognizes and creates symmetrical figures
• knows the attributes of circles, squares, triangles and rectangles

#### Algebraic Thinking

The student…
• identifies simple patterns of sounds, physical movement, and concrete objects
• classifies and sorts objects by color, shape, size, kind and which do not belong in a group
• predicts, extends and creates patterns
• knows that symbols can be used to represent missing or unknown quantities (ex., fill in the missing number in 5, 6, _, 8)
• Data Analysis & Probability
• The student…
• knows how to display answers to simple questions involving two categories or choices using concrete materials or pictures on a graph or chart
• interprets data in pictorial or concrete materials (ex., pictures on a graph or chart)
• interprets data in pictorial or concrete graphs
• uses concrete materials, pictures or graphs to show range and mode
• knows if a given event is more likely, equally likely, or less likely to occur